Ancient Indian Educational System Was Well Ahead of Bloom’s Taxonomy!

July 25, 2019
Category: e-Learning,Education

Bloom’s Taxonomy was created in 1956 to promote higher forms of thinking in education, rather than just remembering facts (Page 20 to 23 of the i-Max Brochure). However, they are very similar to the FOUR key processes of ancient Indian educational system:

The Four Key Processes of Knowledge Acquisition

1. Sravana – Means listen (not just hear) and understand. Sravana is active listening for the truth. Knowledge is technically called “Sruti” or what the mind listened, and not what is seen in text that is easily visible (“Smruti”). This is similar to “remember” and “understand” levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

2. Mañana– Implies that the student has to think out (reflect) for himself/herself the meaning of the lessons imparted to him orally by his teacher so that they may assimilate them fully (“application” in Bloom’s Taxonomy). It is discussing the truth of opinions, where the teacher raises the questions, students will answer & the points will be discussed in a group for “analysis” as in Bloom’s Taxonomy.

3.Nidhyaasana & 4. Saksatkara – It is the complete comprehension (”evaluation”) of the truth so that the student may live the truth (“synthesis – creation” as in Bloom’s Taxonomy) for the benefit of the humanity. This is the method especially for highly intelligent students in every domain areas for Design, Analysis, System thinking, and Modelling.

Mundaka Upanishad & Bloom’s Higher Order Thinking (HOT) & Lower Order Thinking (LOT)

Mundaka Upanishad is a Mukhya (primary) Upanishad. It is listed as number 5 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. As in Bloom’s taxonomy, it defines the science of “Higher Knowledge” and “Lower Knowledge” and encourages students to attain “Higher Knowledge”.

Sloka 1-1-4: To him he said, ‘”There are two kinds of knowledge to be acquired – the higher and the lower”; this is what, as tradition runs, the knowers of the import of the Vedas say.’

Sloka 1-1-5: Of these, the lower comprises the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharva-Veda, the science of pronunciation etc., the code of rituals, grammar, etymology, metre and astrology. Then there is the higher (knowledge) by which is attained that Imperishable.

Sloka 1-1-6: (By the higher knowledge) the wise realize everywhere that which cannot be perceived and grasped, which is without source, features, ……, which is eternal, multiformed, all-pervasive, extremely subtle, and undiminishing and which is the source of all.

Mundaka Upanishad also refers to various dimensions of knowledge including conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive.

How Does i-Max Ensures Higher-Order Thinking in Students?

All i-Max modules have been designed to help the learner to raise the levels of cognitive complexity. For examples modules like: 1. “Smart English through Technology & Science” 2. “AI-based professional engineering interview/viva-voce simulator” 3. “Linking Engineering Theories to the Things Around you.” 4. Product & Process Solutions for Engineering, 5. Situational judgment, and more.